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Smooth Functions
Real Neighborhoods
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Smooth Manifolds


A subset $M \subset \R ^n$ is a smooth manifold of dimension $d$ if for every $x \in M$, there exists a neighborhood $V$ of $x$ in $X$ that is diffeomorphic to an open subset $U$ of $\R ^d$. In this case we say that the set is locally diffeomorphic to $\R ^d$.

A diffeomorphism $\phi : U \to V$ is called a parameterization of the neighborhood of $V$. Its inverse diffeomorphism $\phi ^{-1}$ is called a coordinate system (or system of coordinates) on $V$.


We denote the dimension of a manifold $M$ by $\dim M$.


If $X$ and $Z$ are both manifolds in $R^n$ and $Z \subset X$, then we call $Z$ a submanifold of $X$. In particular, $X$ is a submanifold of $R^n$. Any open set of a manifold $X$ is a submanifold $X$.1

  1. Future editions will expand. ↩︎
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