What is the best linear predictor if we choose according to a particular norm.

Suppose we have a paired dataset of $n$ records with inputs in $\R ^d$ and outputs in $\R $. A norm weighted least squares linear predictor for a norm $g: \R ^n \to \R $ is a linear transformation $f: \R ^d \to \R $ (the field is $\R $) which minimizes

\[ g(y - Ax). \]

Let $\norm{\cdot }_{W}$ be the weighted norm for some positive semidefinite weight matrix $W$. We want to find $x$ to minimize

\[ \norm{y - AX}_{W}. \]

This problem is referred to by many authors as weighted least squares or the weighted least squares problem.A special case of norm weighted least squares with a weighted norm is the usual weighted least squares problem (see Weighted Least Squares Linear Predictors). Consider weighted least squares with weights $w \in \R ^n$, $w \geq 0$. Define $W \in \R ^{n \times n}$ so that $W_{ii} = w_i$ and $W_{ij} = 0$ when $i \neq j$. So, in particular, $W$ is a diagonal matrix and

\[ \norm{y - Ax}_{W} = \sum_{i = 1}^{n} w_i(y_i - \transpose{x}a_i)^2. \]

There exists a unique weighted least squares
linear predictor and its parameters are given by

\[ \inv{(\transpose{A}WA)}\transpose{A}Wy. \]